1.Virtualbox network mode


Mode VM->Host VM<-Host VM1<->VM2 VM->Net/LAN VM<-Net/LAN
Host-only + + + - -
Internal - - + - -
Bridged + + + + +
NAT + PortForward - + PortForward
NATservice + PortForward + + PortForward

1.1 NAT Network.

A NAT network is a type of internal network that allows outbound connections. See Section 6.4, “Network Address Translation Service”.

有虚拟路由,所以guest可以直接通过10.0.2.2:访问host的服务,b包括vpn服务等 Port forwarding for NAT: https://www.virtualbox.org/manual/ch06.html#natforward

netstat -aon | findstr ‘PORT’ tasklist | findstr ‘PID’ tasklist /fi “pid eq 4444”

“c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage” modifyvm Test_centos7 –natpf1 “guestssh,tcp,,2222,,22” But failed on the second rule??? “c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage” modifyvm Test_centos7 –natpf2 “guestkafka,tcp,,9092,,9092”, work around: add in VB Network settings

?#No network access for NAT, change dns settings, for centos:

vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s3

1.2 Bridged networking.

This is for more advanced networking needs, such as network simulations and running servers in a guest. When enabled, Oracle VM VirtualBox connects to one of your installed network cards and exchanges network packets directly, circumventing your host operating system’s network stack.

1.3 Internal networking.

This can be used to create a different kind of software-based network which is visible to selected virtual machines, but not to applications running on the host or to the outside world.

1.4 Host-only networking.

This can be used to create a network containing the host and a set of virtual machines, without the need for the host’s physical network interface. Instead, a virtual network interface, similar to a loopback interface, is created on the host, providing connectivity among virtual machines and the host.

?#host-only模式下客户机vm无法访问位于host宿主机上面的web服务,比如192.168.207.1:8080 原因:不像在NAT和bridge模式下有virtual route虚拟路由,host only是直接连接的,所以宿主机访问主机如同访问外网(没有经过虚拟路由),所以会受到宿主机上面的一些权限限制,比如 可以看到下图,就是NAT模式的虚拟路由,所以可以直接通过这个路由访问宿主机host的服务


Port telnet不通:如果宿主机是win10,Turn Windows Defender Firewall off

Video::NAT, Bridged and Internal Networking https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iEj42l4otNY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDF4X7RmV4Q https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWKZqa2RjpA

2 Build local Lab network

2.1 Linux configuration

Golden trace rule: https://forums.kali.org/showthread.php?20846-Troubleshooting-Internet-Network-Access

Networkmanager configuration https://wiki.debian.org/NetworkConfiguration Kali network configuration The default network configuration relies on DHCP to obtain an IP address, DNS server, and gateway https://kali.training/topic/configuring-the-network/ http://www.solutionsatexperts.com/ip-address-configuration-in-kali-linux/

How to configure Network Adapter in Kali Linux using Command Line Interface https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JL2_fnzCZbE Allow-hotplug ?

Restart network after change config https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-restart-network-interface/ reload /etc/resolv.conf https://askubuntu.com/questions/224966/how-do-i-get-resolvconf-to-regenerate-resolv-conf-after-i-change-etc-network-in


Ip route show
ip a show eth0
Route -n
Ip addr
Ip route

cat /etc/network/interfaces

echo "iface eth0 inet dhcp" >> /etc/network/interfaces
/etc/init.d/networking restart

ifdown eth0
ifup eth0
dhclient eth0
Or manually::
Ifconfig eth0 netmask up
	route add default gw eth0
	ip route add default via dev eth0

sudo service network-manager restart 

2.2 基于network类型构建复杂的环境

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AiWRmMzwwJM https://sandilands.info/sgordon/building-internal-network-virtualbox https://blog.pythian.com/test-lab-using-virtualbox-nat-networking/ https://vorkbaard.nl/set-up-a-testlab-in-virtualbox-with-a-virtual-lan/ ‘Bridged’ and ‘Host Only’ network settings in Virtualbox https://superuser.com/questions/1352678/bridged-and-host-only-network-settings-in-virtualbox-advice-please

https://askubuntu.com/questions/113604/how-to-run-virtualbox-on-bridged-and-host-only-networks http://christophermaier.name/2010/09/01/host-only-networking-with-virtualbox/

VirtualBox: two network interfaces (NAT and host-only ones) https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/37122/virtualbox-two-network-interfaces-nat-and-host-only-ones-in-a-debian-guest-on Images https://developer.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-edge/tools/vms

3 troubleshooting

bridged mode not assign ip address and route

less /var/logs/messages 
Apr  1 03:05:04 kali NetworkManager[431]: <info>  [1554102304.0124] device (eth0): carrier: link connected
Apr  1 03:05:05 kali NetworkManager[431]: <info>  [1554102305.3947] manager: NetworkManager state is now CONNECTED_LOCAL
Apr  1 03:05:05 kali NetworkManager[431]: <info>  [1554102305.4044] device (eth1): Activation: successful, device activated.
Apr  1 03:05:05 kali NetworkManager[431]: <info>  [1554102305.4072] manager: startup complete

dhclient eth0

Apr  1 03:09:49 kali NetworkManager[431]: <info>  [1554102589.2543] keyfile: add connection /run/NetworkManager/system-connections/eth0.nmconnection (effc3b34-06a5-49dd-886b-d21223855eac,"eth0")
Apr  1 03:09:49 kali NetworkManager[431]: <info>  [1554102589.2623] device (eth0): Activation: starting connection 'eth0' (effc3b34-06a5-49dd-886b-d21223855eac)
Apr  1 03:09:49 kali NetworkManager[431]: <info>  [1554102589.3036] manager: NetworkManager state is now CONNECTED_GLOBAL

— for ubuntu: —————————————————————————- 默认会出现类似下面的结果,其中 ipv4对应的是enp0s3:avahi的169的地址, [email protected]:~$ ifconfig enp0s3: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet6 2404:e801:2001:3955:357e:c623:5742:484a prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x0 inet6 2404:e801:2001:3955:543b:3df2:4b55:43b1 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x0 inet6 fe80::2228:aebf:fda5:523b prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x20 ether 08:00:27:64:46:ce txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet) RX packets 7632 bytes 1432852 (1.4 MB) RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 7961 bytes 1009450 (1.0 MB) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0

enp0s3:avahi: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet netmask broadcast ether 08:00:27:64:46:ce txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING> mtu 65536 inet netmask inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 scopeid 0x10 loop txqueuelen 1000 (Local Loopback) RX packets 11328 bytes 898386 (898.3 KB) RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 11328 bytes 898386 (898.3 KB) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0

根据«Linux.md/网络»部分的原理,ubuntu 17以上版本都是UI的network manager来控制的,所以直接打开控制面板来设置静态IP和DNS即可 address netmask gateway DNS: 设置完等一会即可
—————————————————————————- — for 其他debain: —————————————————————————- 配置静态ip /etc/network/interfaces: #auto eth0 #iface eth0 inet dhcp auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address netmask gateway

sudo ifdown eth0 sudo ifup eth0 or sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

如果还是无法上网(上面172.17.5.36是某ISP提供的,貌似虚拟机无法用): /etc/resolv.conf nameserver

sudo systemctl restart systemd-resolved.service

解决后看下当前路由情况: route -n

#Verify new IP settings: ip a s eth0 #Verify new routing settings: ip r #Verify DNS servers settings: cat /etc/resolv.conf #Verify the internet connectivity: ping -c 4 google.com

[email protected]:/home/lyhistory# ip -4 addr 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000 inet scope host lo valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 inet brd scope global eth0 valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

[email protected]:/home/lyhistory# ip route default via dev eth0 onlink dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src —————————————————————————- — for centos —————————————————————————- vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 HWADDR=00:08:A2:0A:BA:B8 TYPE=Ethernet #BOOTPROTO=dhcp BOOTPROTO=none # Server IP # IPADDR= # Subnet # PREFIX=24 # Set default gateway IP # GATEWAY= # Set dns servers # DNS1= DEFROUTE=yes IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no # Disable ipv6 # IPV6INIT=no NAME=eth0 # This is system specific and can be created using ‘uuidgen eth0’ command # UUID=41171a6f-bce1-44de-8a6e-cf5e782f8bd6 DEVICE=eth0 ONBOOT=yes

systemctl restart network


Can access internet but cannot ping

Firewall setting Outbound port https://askubuntu.com/questions/608194/have-internet-connection-but-cant-ping-external-sites https://networkengineering.stackexchange.com/questions/37896/ping-port-number

eth0 not found or not configured simply restart vm