Project Management - Project Initiation and Planning

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1. Concepts

Applying tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements Projects do not exist in isolation but as part of a larger ecosystem that is aimed at delivering benefits to meet the strategic objectives of the business. Program Management: Manage a group of related projects in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Portfolio Management: Centralized management of a group of projects or programs to facilitate effective management to meet strategic business objectives


Project Management KPIs are pegged to the Schedule Scope Cost ( The ‘Triple Constraints’, constraints are boundaries placed on the project)


Project Life Cycle (Concept - development - implementation - close-out) Primary purpose of life cycle:  To provide a consistent and effective approach for undertaking projects SDLC: A framework for describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information systems. Process Groups The Project Management Model can be viewed as a number of interlinked process groups: Initiating Processes :: To get commitment for the project :: Stakeholder Analysis/Register :: Implementation Strategy, Overall schedule, budget Planning Processes :: Establish scope, estimates and schedule and course of action to meet objectives :: Risk assessment, Preparing WBS, Preparing Cost Estimates,Conduct Precedence Analysis, Draw up Schedule :: Duration of activities,Milestones,Responsibilities of team,Project communication protocols, Project Organization Structure Executing Processes :: Completing the work done according to plan :: Co-ordinating people and resources, Work deliverables, Performance reports, Updates to project plans and docs :: Trade-offs, Manpower Resource assignments Monitoring&Controlling Processes ::Track and regulate the progress and performance :: Change requests(corrective/preventive actions), Analysing deviations,Re-planning, Updates to project docs :: What and when to escalate issues, Project termination, When to close risks, To revise schedule/resources Closing Processes :: Finalize all activities to formally close the project/phase :: Final signoff, Complete documentation, Archival of information, Close contracts, Post Implementation Review, Roll-off Personnel, Celebrations :: To accept the system or not What to carry forward into O&S Rewards Knowledge Areas Interpersonal skills ; General management; The application/business domain; The project environment (Project managers must focus on meeting specific project/business objectives by integrating various activities.)

4.Success and Failure

Cause of failure? Missing focus(Unclear objectives, Lack of business focus); Content issues(Shifting requirements, Technical complexity); Skill issues(Unaligned team, Lack of skills); Execution issues(Unrealistic schedule, Reactive planning) What must do to ensure project success? Understand early user needs and get agreement of user requirements; Gain and retain user and management commitment; Choose an appropriate SDLC; Determine whether a formal  Methodology is necessary; Develop a comprehensive project plan early and Monitor against the plan; Modify the plan when necessary; Determine realistic cost estimates; Equip staff with appropriate skills; Establish realistic expectations of project amongst all project team; Accept and manage change;

5.PM Certifications

A Good Project Manager? Knowledge and Skills(Planning, Observation, Communication) Behavioral Traits(Ability to operate in uncertainty, Flexible Management Approach) Motivation(Empathy in combination with Killer Instinct) Credibility(How respected and trusted is the PM, by superiors, his team, vendors, and clients)

Project Initiation

1.Initiation Process (Processes to define a new project or new phase of the project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase)

Create a shared understanding amongst the stakeholders of the purpose and success criteria, improves deliverable acceptance, customer satisfaction and stakeholder satisfaction Authorises the project Output: Project Charter, Stakeholder Register Project Charter - A document endorsed by senior project management that provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities; Content: Project Purpose; Objectives/Success criteria; The project objectives must address:: Problem/opportunity; Business need; Strategic fit with organizational goals; Inclusions and exclusions to scope; Products of the project; Successful completion criteria and measurements High level requirement; Scope issues:: How well defined? How detailed? How important? High Level risks; All IT projects will contain some element of risk. Project manager’s duty is to minimize and mange risk, In the project initiation stage: Ensure possible sources of risks are not inserted in the project at this time Project Managers must recognize these sources of risk Select a project/technical strategy that will minimize risk Summary milestone schedule; Summary budget; Budgets and schedules may initially be “fixed” “pre-ordained” or “non-negotiable” But these may be based on: Inadequate information; Previously made promises; Wishful thinking As the Project Unfolds, Detail adds costs, Changes add costs Stakeholder list; Customer enterprise personality type: Aggressive: organizations are pioneers that consciously and aggressively adopt high-risk strategies to gain potentially high rewards and competitive advantage. Mainstream: organizations are willing to support moderate risk taking in the adoption of innovation and have the corporate skills and culture to support such initiatives. Conservative: organizations are cautious adopters of anything new. They are neither willing nor prepared to handle high levels of risk. Implementation Approach; Assigned PM; Name and Authority authorizing the Charter

2.Stakeholder Analysis (Identify - Analyze&Prioritize - Engage&Mange - Review&Refine)

individuals and organizations who may be actively involved in the project, and whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as result of project execution or successful project completion. the project manager, project steering committee, the project sponsor, project owner, user manager, vendor project manager Output: Stakeholder Register The register consolidates information about stakeholders from various sources and perspectives. It’s used for the analysis and subsequent formulation of engagement activities to address the needs of the stakeholder.

3.Implementation Approach

|: Management Strategy :|:Technical Strategy ( Technology Platforms, Languages and Tools, Architecture, Software Development Lifecycle ):| |:Management methodology:|:Scope to be achieved:| |:Management style:|:Lay down the high level architecture that will form the basis of your system:| |:The Project Organization:|:Define the tools, languages, Hardware and Software utilities, design processes,code and test processes:|

How big is the project? How is the customer working with you How experienced, capable and flexible are your staff? What are the maturities of the technologies you are using? What does your senior management expect of you? How much are you willing to delegate? How many organizations are collaborating? Are you outsourcing, local or overseas? Decisions to be made: How you wish to build the system : In multiple releases , in one big release What form will your system implementation take? What SDLC will be used What (if any) methodology will be used? Who will do the implementation? In-house, Outsource, Best-source How will the implementation be performed? Bespoke development, Customization of an existing application, Utilizing existing components to provide major functionality from in-house sources, Commercial packages, Open Source Software, new functionality from scratch. The Implementation approach and technology strategy describes: What you are going to build How you are going to build it Who will build it It will describe your management approach It will define the major phases and the lifecycle to be used in the development of your system It will form the basis of the high level architecture and design of your system It will identify the tools and processes that will be used It will identify how the system will be built

Project Cost Justification

–The process of comparing the various investment costs with the benefits that it returns to justify or reject the investment Type of Investment

Mandatory Investments(Regulatory requirements, Organization requirements, Competitive pressure) Investments to improve performance Investments to achieve competitive advantage Infrastructure investments Investment in Research Quantitative Cost Benefit analysis Cost reduction/saving List the activities that will be affected by the new system Identify those roles that will no longer be required Identify the changes in responsibilities, and the reduction in staff Identify the office space which will be released Identify other saving (replacing existing hardware maintenance cost; subcontractors/outside consultants) Cost avoidance Identify the activities that will have to be performed in order to fulfil new or current requirements Identify the cost avoidance in Salaries/Overheads Identify the office space which will be released Identify other costs avoided (Expansions to existing systems;subcontractors/outside consultants) Improved business control/performance Identify the reduction in production cycle time (i.e. in Product specification/Product development/Production installation/delivery) Identify the reduction in response time to customer request Identify the reduction in time for information to be transmitted through the organization Identify the reduction in customer billing time Benefits of Quality of Service Identify the current cost of quality, in terms of total number of defects and average cost per defect Identify the reduced cost of quality (reduced num of defects, reduced cost of repair/maintenance) Compare the costs and identify the savings Business Expansion Identify the expansion in existing market share that will achieved using the new system Identify the new product markets that will be penetrated using the new system Identify the new geographical markets that will be penetrated using the new system Financial Justification and Financial Measures Present Value - PV Net Present Value - NPV Payback Period Return on Investment - ROI Economic Value-Added - EVA Net Economic Value - NEV Intangible Benefits primarily occur in Strategic/Infrastructure/Long-term investments

Qualitative Cost Justification techniques General analytic ranking and scoring approach Value chain Analysis Strategic Match analysis Porter’s Generic Strategy model

Risk Management

1.Concepts of Risk Management 2.Risk Assessment Risk Identification Risk Analysis [ Risk Exposure(event)=Prob(event)*Impact(event) ] Risk Scoring Technique Risk Prioritization 3.Risk Control Risk Planning Risk Resolution Risk Avoidance/Removal Risk Minimization Risk Transfer Risk Localisation Risk Insurance Risk Monitoring

Project Scope Management

1.Scope Planning

Input: Description of what the project is to deliver: The Project Charter, IT Strategic Plan, The Invitation to Tender/Request for Proposal Assumption(e.g. start date,availability of hardware and tools) Constraints(e.g. cost and schedule) Templates(Scope Management Plan templates) Output: Scope Statement Scope Statement Appendices Scope Management Plan(Scope Management Plan template, establishes the basis for scope change control)

2.Scope Definition

The Actors Key Issues The Project Manager’s Role Requirements Elicitation Techniques Interview, Surveys, Focus Groups, Observations, Prototypes Requirements Classification Functional, Content, Technical, Performance, Usability, Project, Data, Security and Control, Integration, Quality Writing Good Requirements Outputs: Sets of structure and unstructured documents(Minutes of Meetings, Compilations of interviews, surveys, focus group sessions,etc, Agreements “in principle” on requiremnts) A strong relationship with the user

3.Scope Analysis

Methods: Structured Analysis Use Case Analysis User stories

Requirements Dependencies, Conflicts and Constraints Scope Feasibility Decomposition WBS Output: A detailed description of the scope - Requirement Specification An initial-  work break down structure

4.Scope Prioritization

The MosCoW Methods Cost-Benefit Analysis Consensus Methods

5.Scope Verification & Validation

Impact of different Management Methodologies: The V-Model Inputs Process:Actors;Activities: Inspections Reviews Tests Measurements Outputs

6.Scope Change Management

Change Requests Change Control Board Scope Change Management Process Managing Customer Expectations

Work Breakdown Structure(WBS)

1.Definition 2.Techniques 3.Advantages and Disadvantages 4.Refining the WBS 5.Work Breakdown Levels 6.Resource Assignment

Project Cost Estimation

1.Cost Estimation Method 2.Keys to Realistic Estimations 3.Managing Vendor Costs 4.Contigency

Precedence Analysis

1.Types of Dependencies 2.The Critical Path Method 3.Logical Errors 4.Logical Errors 5.Activity Representation

The Project Plan

1.Key Management Plans

2.The Project Plan

To provide a starting point for project management activities To coordinate all project planning documents To help guide a project’s execution and control To document project planning assumptions and constraints To define the timing of key management reviews To provide a baseline for progress measurement ——————————– The Planning Process:: Define/Select the Software Lifecycle based on Customer requirements Perceived risks Technology Resource constraints Assess the Risks Determine the most likely and most expensive risks Plan to avoid/mitigate the risks Develop the Project WBS Identify and address the risks Identify resources Estimate Costs Prepare an objective estimate of the cost of the project Identify assumptions and areas of uncertainties Construct precedence diagram Identify dependencies Produce Project schedule Map project onto calendar Use project management tools

3.Development Approach

4.Work Plan

1) Outlines all relevant aspects of the work including both Process as well as product steps 2) Specifies the project work as a HIERARCHY of work items.The following hierarchy is suggested: STAGE -> PHASE -> STEP -> ACTIVITY -> TASK Each phase of the plan should include an activity that covers all aspects of the general project management and administration: detailed planning of tasks Internal reporting Monthly and quarterly progress reporting to the client Production of meeting minutes Financial control and reporting The maintenance of the project filing system Each phase of the work plan should include a Quality Assurance activity. This activity covers the following tasks: The PRODUCTION of the QUALITY PLAN which will state the methods, procedures and quality responsibilities used by the project The QUALITY AUDIT of the project, against the QA plan produced in the Initial Planning Phase, by the project QA manager The MODIFICATION of the QA plan, if necessary, and its approval by the QA manager The production of LOCAL(project specific) PROCEDURES and their approval by the QA manager The provision of ADVICE  to the project on QUALITY MATTERS by the QA manager 3) Forms a BASIS for estimating STAFF EFFORT requirements 4) Forms a BASIS for determining the TIME SCHEDULE

5.Staff Effort Requirements

Estimating Staff Effort Project Roles Staff Type Staff Effort

6.Timescales and Milestones

7.Project Budgets

8.Project Deliverables

9.Project Structure and Staffing

10.Supporting Resources

11.Sample Project Plan Standards

12.Project Plan Assignment

The Project Quality Assurance Plan

Project 2013 Microsoft Project will also allow you to level resource for the project and will also allow you to resolve resource conflicts. For example, if you wish to analyze the resource allocations of the various member of the project team then:

1.Look at the Resource Sheet View(Select , then from the top level menu)

2.You can also use the Resource Usage view to search for all over-allocated resources. In the resource usage view, over-allocated resources will appear in red on the left panel. Click the bottom scroll bar of the right panel to view when the resource is over-allocated and why

3.Go back to the Gantt chart view and change the timescales to below:

4.We can remove the overload through resource leveling. Firstly, save a copy of the plan. Manually carry out the resource leveling for the Project lead. How would you reallocate his time? What is the impact to the overall project?

5.Use your original plan and go to the Gantt chart view. Activate the auto-levelling. Select the resource tab on the top-level menu. Then select. This levels all the resources. How has the project been impacted? What are the pros and cons of using the auto-levelling feature in MS Project?

6.This will re-schedule the activities in the project to ensure that project leader resource over-allocation alone does not take place, i.e., no more than 100% of the Project Leader is assigned at any one time. The Resource Graph will change to reflect the new allocation and the starting and ending dates of the activities would be impacted as well.

7.To review the results apply the Leveling Gantt View.(The top bar represents where a task was before it was leveled, the bottom bar represents where it is now). Pay attention to the Leveling Delay field to see by how many days a task has been delayed.

8.If you would like to repeat the leveling exercise, select Resource Tab, This will restore the resource allocation to the original state before leveling. Once again, pay close attention to the tasks that caused over-loading, what are their original starting and ending dates and what are their new starting and ending dates after leveling.